Diabetes Types

Know detailed information on diabetes, diabetes symptoms, signs, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes

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Type I Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called juvenile diabetes, childhood diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), occurs when 90 percent or more of pancreatic beta cells have been destroyed, usually by an autoimmune process that impels the body to attack it self. Consequently, the body produces little to no insulin. Without insulin to assist in processing the glucose, blood sugars rise to damaging and potentially fatal levels .

Type 1A Or Autoimmune Diabetes

Although there are several different subtypes of type 1 diabetes, the most common form of type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, or an attack from within. For some reason, the T lymphocytes don't recognize the beta cells of the pancreas as part of the body, and instead attack them as if they were foreign invaders. The trigger behind this autoimmune siege is not completely understood. Current research points to a combination of environmental and genetic factors.

E Fact

Certain diseases that damage the pancreas (such as hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatitis) may cause beta cell destruction that can eventually lead to diabetes and insulin dependence. Some endocrine disorders, including Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly, cause hormone imbalances that influence the way insulin is produced and processed by the body, subsequently leading to diabetes.

Signs Of Self Destruction

An antibody is a protein that works along with T cells and other immune system components to destroy a specific foreign presence in the body, such as bacteria or viruses. An auto antibody is an antibody gone haywire a substance that attacks cells in the body that it is supposed to protect. Up to 90 percent of individuals with type 1 diabetes test positive for the presence of islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin auto antibodies (IAA), and,or auto antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase . These auto antibodies attack the insulin producing beta cells. A positive islet cell antibody test can actually detect the autoimmune processes that attack the beta cells of the pancreas before clinical symptoms of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) actually occur. When type 1 diabetes is known to be caused by an autoimmune process, it is referred to as type 1A diabetes. Immune mediated type 1 diabetes also puts you at a higher risk for developing other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, thyroid disease, myasthenia gravis, and others.

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood

Yet another subcategory of type 1A diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA), occurs in approximately 10 percent of all cases of diabetes of adults over age thirty. This immune-mediated form of diabetes is sometimes referred to as late onset autoimmune diabetes of adulthood, slow onset type 1, or type 1.5 diabetes. Basically, individuals with LADA experience a slower and longer process of beta cell destruction than those with type 1A diabetes.